plip blog https://blog.plip.com Sun, 30 Aug 2020 19:35:11 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.5.1 Replacing two iPods with a Bash script https://blog.plip.com/2020/08/30/replacing-two-ipods-with-a-bash-script/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/08/30/replacing-two-ipods-with-a-bash-script/#respond Sun, 30 Aug 2020 19:35:07 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2354 […]]]>

13 years ago we got an iPod to actually listen to music on the go. It was awesome! Some time later we had our first kid and some time after that smart phones became prevalent, so our iPod fell out of use. But it was about 9 years ago that we started to use the old iPod as an easy way to play the same a bedtime playlist for our kids (oh yeah, we had a 2nd kid at some point too ;). Soon, the kids split into their own bedrooms so we picked up a used iPod on eBay and loaded up the same bedtime playlist onto it. These two iPods dutifully played the same songs day in and day out every night for years. They’re even more utilitarian than designed, but worked well at their finite task (Photo by Nicnicoleleeolee):

However, over time things started to not work. First one of the fancy docks we used as a speaker stopped charging which ever iPod was in it. This meant every week or so we’d have to swap it over to the good dock to charge up. But then one started to lock up and had to be rebooted. We feared we’d have to replace them soon.

It was around this time that I starting using the Cast All The Things software (aka catt) in my quest to both (finally) learn Python and to easily control the volume on a chromecast. Checkout my cattmate and cattrotar projects! catt is a command line script and python library that allows you to easily control and play videos/music on Chromecasts. It was also around the time that Chomecast Audio’s were stopped being made so I’d stocked up them. We have about 4 or 5 plugged in here and there about the house, including one in each kids room. They work really well!

By now you can likely see how this post is going to resolve itself, but lets find out, shall we?

Yes, that’s right, I wrote a full featured web site that you could pull up and easily play music in which ever room needed to hear the play list. It was simple, yet fancy ;) On the front end there was a series of 2 buttons, one for each room. When you pressed a button, it sent an AJAX call to a to the single endpoint on the back end. The back end then made an exec call to a bash script. This in turn used catt to play a MP3 on the specified Chromecast.

This worked great for a day or so. But then a bug reared it’s ugley had. Let me tell you, the cost of a software bug in your web app which involves waking your child up at 10.30pm is EXTREMELY high. Like, unacceptably high. Sleeping children are gold. Parents get grown up time, the kids get much needed rest and we’re all better for it the next day. Don’t fuck with a kid’s sleep.

After some unfruitful debugging, I got lazy and realized I’d already installed the wonderful termux on my phone, along with a $2 add on to have a bash script launcher widget on my phone’s desktop. So, after a dozen or so minutes of coding and a little ssh-keygen -t ed25519 for good measure, I had this on my phone:

Here’s what happens when you press one of those four links:

  1. Call a local script on the phone with the same name shown above
  2. Each script has the same contents but just calls the remote server with a different argument: ssh napserver controlmusic.sh CHILD PLAY_STOP. So for the first one above, that’d be ssh napserver controlmusic.sh e play
  3. The remote server, (hardened of course to only allowing one command to be run for that SSH key,) inside controlmusic.sh runs a catt command: /usr/bin/catt -d DEVICE COMMAND OPTIONAL_COMMAND. Again for the first button that’d look like: /usr/bin/catt -d "E's Chromecast" cast songs.mp3

So, while not nearly has fancy as the web app I initially wrote, it works every time, has saved me the time of debugging the web app (aka let me be lazy ;) and most importantly, does not wake the kids up after they’ve gone to sleep! Icing on the cake is that continued my lazy streak and bought the app for my partner’s phone so they could activate the playlist while I’m out of town (instead of me VPNing in and activating it remotely on request ;).

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How to get the Dell Windows 10 OS Recovery to boot on XPS 13″ 9350 https://blog.plip.com/2020/08/07/how-to-get-dell-os-recovery-to-boot-xps-13-9350/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/08/07/how-to-get-dell-os-recovery-to-boot-xps-13-9350/#respond Sat, 08 Aug 2020 04:41:00 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2333 […]]]> Remember that awesome Dell XPS 13 I got back in 2016? The one that came with Windows 10 but then I wiped clean with Ubuntu 16.04? Well, it’s still goin’ strong! So strong that it’s time to sell it to another happy user now that work got me an upgrade. In that post I just linked you can read about how I upgraded it to have a better wireless card. Since then I’ve also upgraded to Ubuntu 18.04 with zero hardware compatibility issues. Further, I put in a faster NVMe drive and replaced the battery with an OEM Dell one to give it a bit more running time (battery health in the BIOS showed as bad).

My buyer wanted to run the stock Windows 10 OS, so it was up to me to get it back to it’s roots to close the deal. Dell, it turns out, makes it REALLY easy to do a clean re-install of Windows 10 on your XPS laptop. They have this great tool called the Dell OS Recovery Tool. First you go to their site and punch in your Dell Service Tag. Then you download a windows executable. When you run that, you again punch in your Service Tag. The magic happens here then: the software builds a USB bootable image for Windows 10 with all the drivers needed for your specific laptop. This is totally awesome and saves a TON of time. Thanks Dell!

If you’re not on a Dell then that center panel isn’t available, still works though!

Then you wait a while (10 min?) while the program runs it’s course and you see the final screen saying it’s done. Odly, the other steps are not clickable to find out more information, they’re just showing you’re on step two of five:

Now you should just need to reboot your laptop and press “F12” to get the one time boot prompt to go so you can specify the USB drive to boot off of (screen shot curtesy of jasoncoltrin.com):

However, no matter what I did, my USB drive never showed up under “UEFI BOOT” there. My Ubuntu 18.04 install drive? It showed up. Ubuntu 20.04 server install drive? Yup, no problems. Ok, maybe it’s the brand of USB drive? I reflashed a different brand USB drive and it had the same problem. Maybe BIOS settings are tweaked? I reset BIOS back to defaults, still no option to boot. After a couple hours, i walked away and slept on it.

The next day I was researching more and some one mentioned something about an NTFS partition:

One thing folks may not realize is the Flash Drive has to be formatted as FAT 32 in order to boot as UEFI..

Dell Forum Post

This was a bit silly though – the Dell Recover Tool completely formats the USB drive so it’s pristine and nothing is left on it but the FAT boot partition. Wait, is it silly? Let’s look at the USB drive in question in the Ubuntu 20.04 Disks utility:

Yup, see, just like I said, FAT boot par….hey!! What’s that other partition there!?

What? What’s this possibly BIOS confusing NTFS partition doing there? Let’s click that minus icon:

Yes I’m sure, delete that thing!!

Now let’s see what the BIOS thinks when I reboot with a USB drive with just the one FAT partition that DELL originally wrote. It thinks life is wonderful and is happy to proceed with re-installing Windows 10. This, by the way, takes a good number of hours. Be patient.

So, tl;dr – if you can’t get your Dell USB Windows 10 Restore image to boot on your Dell XPS 13 9350, and likely a lot of other Dell models, consider deleting this extra partition on the USB drive. It worked magic for me.

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Kids DNS in the Time of Covid https://blog.plip.com/2020/06/21/kids-dns-in-the-time-of-covid/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/06/21/kids-dns-in-the-time-of-covid/#respond Mon, 22 Jun 2020 03:47:12 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2315 […]]]> Like all of you parents lucky enough to still have a job during the COVID19 layoffs, I’ve been struggling to balance time at work, personal time, family time and being the family’s IT person. With school closed, and now all summer camps closed, our use of kids screen time (aka internet time) has gone up from 0.5hrs/day to 3hrs+/day. How do we ensure we have safe computing environment for them?

DoT by Design

Originally, we had a MacOS workstation for the kids with parental controls enabled. This allowed us to do things like set up a 30 min per day limit, create separate accounts for each kid, limit which apps they could use and, most importantly, limit which URLs they could use (deny all, allow some). When coupled with my love of LXD/Pi-Hole/Quad9, that looked like this:

In this scenario the kid’s single shared workstation would get an IP lease from the DHCP server running on the pfSense router. This lease would specify the house wide Pi-Hole which sent all it’s DNS clear text queries to Stubby which in turn sent them encrypted to Quad9 via DNS over TLS (DoT). This is really nice as not only do we do get LAN wide ad blocking, but we get LAN wide encrypted DNS too. Score!

The kids workstation gets no special treatment on the network and is a peer of every other DNS lease on the LAN. However, with them needing to do school work and have fun and learn over the summer, they’ve since each gotten their own workstations. Now we have three workstations! This is starting to be a hassle to maintain the lock down on which sites they can browse. As a result, we just told them “be good” and let them use their new workstations with out any filters. This is sub-optimal!

.* Blacklist

How can we improve this situation to make it more tenable and more secure? By adding more instances of Pi-Hole, of course! It’s trivial to add a new instance of Pi-Hole with LXD. Just add a new container lxc launch ubuntu: pi-hole2 and then install Pi-Hole on the new container with curl -sSL https://install.pi-hole.net | bash . It’s two one liners that take all of 5 minutes.

For those of you like me that want an easy way to export their existing whitelist from MacOS’s parental controls, check out the “Directory Service command line utility” aka dscl. With this command you can create a file with all the URLs you’ve whitelisted. You can then easily import them into your new Pi-Hole instance (be sure to swap out USERNAME for your user):

dscl . -mcxexport /Users/USERNAME com.apple.familycontrols.contentfilter|grep http|cut -d'>' -f2|cut -d'<' -f 1|sort|uniq

Back to the new Pi-Hole instance, if we set the upstream DNS server to be the initial Pi-Hole, this means the kids DNS gets all the benefits of the existing encrypted infrastructure, but can add their own layer of blocking. Here I configure their Pi-Hole to just use the existing Pi-Hole as the resolver:

Specifically, if you add .* as a blacklist, EVERY site on the internet will fail to resolve. Then you can incrementally add sites you want resolve to your whitelist:

Once we hard code each of the three workstations to use the new Kids DNS, we’re good to go! And, this indeed works, but the savvy technologist will see the time suck of a flaw in my plan: If you whitelist example.com, there’s 5 or more sites you need to whitelist as well in order for example.com to work. This is because 99% of all sites use 3rd party javascript via content delivery networks (CDNs), have integrations with social media and of course often use the ever present Google Analytics. It gets even more tricky because if you want to keep your kid from searching on Google, you can’t think, “Oh, I’ll just whitelist *.google.com and then all it’ll save a bunch of time!”. Along with that will come Gmail and who knows what ever else. I knew this issue would be there going in, so I wasn’t afraid to take the time to get it to work. But caveat emptor!

Teaching Kids to be Smart

Speaking of caveats of a plan – all parents should know that this plan is VERY easy to bypass once your kids starts to figure out how the internet and their specific devices work. I’ve literally told my kids what I’m doing (stopping just about every site from working) why I’m doing it (the internet can be a horrible place) and that they can likely figure a way around it (see Troy Hunt’s tweet – as well as his larger write up on parenting online).

Like Troy Hunt, I’ll be super proud when they figure a way around it – and that day will come! But I do want to prevent them from randomly clicking a link and ending up somewhere we don’t want them to be. They can then ask us parents about why they can’t access a site or when it might allowed.

Being honest with your kids about what you’re doing is the way for them to be aware that this is for their benefit. The end goal is not to lock the entire internet away forever, it’s actually the opposite. The end goal is to prepare them to be trusted with unfettered access to the internet. This will happen soon enough whether we parents want it or not!

Banning 8.8.8.8 et al.

While I was in there tuning up the DNS, I remembered that some clients on my network (I’m looking at you Roku!) weren’t listening to the DHCP rules about using my preferred, encrypted DNS and going direct to Google’s DNS (8.8.8.8) or others I didn’t like. After a little research I found I could redirect all outbound TCP and UDP DNS traffic so that all devices use my Pi-Hole/Stubby/Quad9 DNS* whether they thought they were or not. For others running pfSense and want to do this, see the steps to “Blocking DNS Queries to External Resolvers” and then “Redirecting all DNS Requests to pfSense” (both thanks to this Reddit thread).

* We shall not speak of how devices will soon speak DNS over HTTPs (DoH), thus ruining this idea.

What about product X?

Some of you may be thinking, “this seems like a lot of work, why don’t you just implement an existing off the shelf solution?” Good question! For one, I like to DIY so I control my data and what’s done with it instead of letting a 3rd party control it. As well, while there’s home based solutions, I prefer open source solutions. To put my money where my mouth is, I’ve just donated for the 2nd (3rd?) time to Pi-Hole. I encourage you to do the same!

To be clear though, this set up is a pretty crude tool to achieve the end result. It looks like there’s some quite polished solutions out there if you’re OK with closed source, cloud hosted solutions. As well, there’s of course other variations on the “Use Pi-Hole For Parental Controls“.

Wrapping Up

Now that we have all in this in place, we can trivially support N clients which we want to force to use the kids more lock down DNS set up. This looks like exactly like it did before, but we have an extra container in the LXD server (and, some what orthogonally, a fancier pfSense DNS blocking setup):

I suspect this set up won’t last for more than a year or two. As more and more sites get added to the white list, it will be harder and harder to maintain. Maybe after that I’ll give each kid their own Pi-Hole instance to run on an actual Raspberry Pi and let them do with it as they please ;)

(Of course just after I deployed this, Pi-Hole 5.0 came out which offer the concept of groups, so you can likely do this idea above in a single instance instead of multiple. A bummer for me now, but a win for all other Pi-Hole users, including my future use!)

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Punk Rock Band Names April 2020 https://blog.plip.com/2020/04/20/punk-rock-band-names-april-2020/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/04/20/punk-rock-band-names-april-2020/#respond Mon, 20 Apr 2020 18:12:21 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2308 […]]]> I’ve had a few of these queued up for a while now, so time to release them into the wild:

  • Antagonizing the Soup – On the beach with friends, it came up in conversation that a one of us was not being as nice as they could their kid’s Superintendent
  • Placental Revival – from this awesome Radio Lab
  • Shawarma on the Brain – Ordering Mediterranean with a bunch of friends and the person behind the counter kept on mistakenly hearing “shawarma”
  • Asprin Death – ??? I can’t remember. Maybe related to this older This American Life?

For those new readers wondering what this all about, see the first post on this and the series.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestmail

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Asterisk, LXD, Wireguard VPN and Remote “Office” https://blog.plip.com/2020/02/08/asterisk-lxd-wireguard-vpn-and-remote-office/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/02/08/asterisk-lxd-wireguard-vpn-and-remote-office/#respond Sat, 08 Feb 2020 08:04:21 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2277 […]]]> You may remember that a while ago, I set up a fun little PBX for my kids. It was awesome! That setup allowed my partner and I to use our cell phones as SIP clients to the Asterisk instance running on the LXD server and my kids each had an analog phone going through the ATA:

Since then, I decided it would actually be pretty cool to have a phone in our kitchen so we could call upstairs to the kids. If I was gonna wire up 1 phone, I may as well wire up 3 phones and I may as well make them all awesome. Yes, you know it, I’m talking about deploying 3 of the venerable Cisco 7960s:

These phones, according to my research, will be 20 years old in August of next year. That’s 10 years older than my oldest kid. That’s….really old! Especially in internet time! Yet, these phones are indeed venerable. They simply work and won’t quit. Even when they do quit, all you need is a little cardboard and they’ll keep on goin’. I had a few laying around and they’re often posted for sale for $5-15 online. I won’t get into it in this post, but it is some what of an art to get them on the right SIP (not SCCP!) firmware. This guide has some good info as does Loligo’s. tl;dr – set up an TFTP server, set your DHCP with the TFTP option, tie your phones MAC to the right conf file, and away you go. Feel free to email me if you get stuck!

But, we’re getting ahead of ourselves. Before we could plug the phones in though, we had to string some Ethernet. This means that my kids learned the important life skill every 7 year old needs to know, how to crimp RJ45 cable ends:

After all 3 phones were physically connected to the network (and running SIP firmware per above), they could connect to the Asterisk instance on the LXD box. Now our set up looks like this (only two SIP phones are shown, we have 3 (actually I put one on my office desk recently, so now we have 4 :))

At this point, I nuked the vanilla Asterisk instance and installed the latest version of FreePBX. Now the kids no longer get to learn about busy signals, instead they get to learn about conference calls, hold music (but not THAT hold music sadly), voice mails and a house wide paging system. It is SO much fun! And, honestly, it’s super practical too.

I was talking to my sister recently and she’d heard the kids talk about their phones and how much they loved them. I asked if she wanted one at her house. Given our kids don’t have email or a cell phone, this would give my sister a direct way to contact her niece and nephew with no middle parent man. Let’s do it! But…how?

Let’s assume we just go for it. We’ll just program another phone we picked up off craig’s list to talk to the public IP of my house (no static IP, but that’s what Dynamic DNS is for), and we’ll punch a whole in the NAT Firewall Router thingy (a fanless doodad running pfSense). Asterisk uses SIP as we know, which is on port UDP 5060, so it’s pretty easy. We do a port forward like this – see red arrow:

This is a bad idea. On so many levels. First off, these hella old phones use only unencrypted tech. I mean, why use SSH when you have telnet? Why use TLS when you have good ol’ HTTP? SIP itself is unencrypted which means that any one of the many hops the traffic goes through will be able to trivially sniff the UDP packets used to authenticate against the Asterisk instance. Not only could they get on to my LAN, they could listen to all the calls. Nitpickers may note that Wikipedia speaks of SIP encryption – but that’s impossible on these old phones.

These types hacks are no theoretical either. Security researcher Ang Cui has made quite a name for him with all the vulns he’s found in these phones. In a Defcon 21 talk called “Stepping P3wns: Adventures in full spectrum embedded exploitation (and defense!)” he demonstrated how sending a resume (PDF) which would get printed on a (vulnerable) HP printer would allow a reverse tunnel to open up which could then be used hack the phone on the desk and silently enable the mic so he could listen to you discuss his “resume”. Awesome!! And scary ;) The same nitpicker as above will not this was the 7961, not the 7960 – still my OLDER phone is very likely less secure than the NEWER one.

Maybe I should encrypt the traffic? Like, what if we put a VPN server behind the firewall, do a port forward to it, and a VPN client at the remote “office”? That way the SIP traffic is never seen on the internet! Yeah!! Very similar to the diagram above, but with two more devices:

Now instead of unencrypted packets being forwarded to the Asterisk server, we only have encrypted packets being forwarded to the VPN server (again, see red arrow below). Further the remote phone uses the VPN (blue arrow) and thinks it’s on my home network – un-routable IP and all!

But where as we spent $15 before, we’ve reused existing phones with the new setup and VPNs sound hard and possibly expensive to deploy. Maybe it can’t be done the cheap-cheap? Dun dun dun!! Enter Wireguard! This insanely simple, radically secure and Sys Admin friendly VPN is great. I’ve deployed a bunch of instances now and can’t get enough of it. But what about the price of the hardware? Here’s where the final piece of this Asterisk, LXD, Wireguard VPN and Remote “Office” puzzle is put in place:

For just over $20 shipped you too can have an awesome VPN server aka the GL-MT300N-V2 made by GL Technologies (aka GL.iNet). They also work as clients too! While we’ve had to reboot the remote VPN and Phone once or twice, we’ve had months of up time using this set up. The router supports a slick GUI (what I ended up using) but if you’re retro, you can do it all manually too.

An added bonus to this whole set up is by adding a Wireguard client on my phone, I can now VPN in and use the SIP client where ever I am to call or be called.

Postscript: A few weeks ago we decided we’d experiment with letting the kids be at home alone for short periods. Per above, they have no cell phones and we have no land line. But with a perfectly good PBX in place already, I spent $4 getting a LocalPhone SIP trunk. We now pay $0.005 per outgoing call. Yes, you read that right, half a cent per call. Read more over at Ward Mundy’s site!

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The one page invoicing web app I didn’t write https://blog.plip.com/2020/01/10/the-one-page-invoicing-web-app-i-didnt-write/ https://blog.plip.com/2020/01/10/the-one-page-invoicing-web-app-i-didnt-write/#respond Sat, 11 Jan 2020 04:41:24 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2268 […]]]> This past week I had to invoice a customer for some consulting I did for them. Late last year I used some rando site I couldn’t find again to generate an earlier invoice. This time, however, I thought that maybe I might be doing more consulting, so I wanted to be sure to use the same app going forward. Even better, it would be great if there was something that I could host myself to ensure any sensitive information in the invoice didn’t leak by accident.

After spending some time looking, I found a more than capable web app called “InvoiceOnline” written by Alex P. out Ukraine. It was near perfect!

I downloaded the repo and opened the index.html file in my fave browser. It just worked as expected, no web server, python or PHP needed. Sweet!

However, I went to add a long line item and the text just got cut off. What I needed was to have the input fields be changed to textarea fields. Since this was an open source project, easy peasy, lemon squeezy!

Oh, and I need to make sure when you print you don’t see any of the textarea artifacts (resize handle, scrollbars etc). Oh yeah, I also wanted to be able to set the currency explicitly. Also the “Save” and “Print” buttons didn’t seem to do anything. I also wanted to be able to add a note to say a nice “hey!!” to my customers when they see the bill. Penultimate, it’d be nice to host a version of it on my site and add the quintessential “Fork me on Gitub!” overlay banner. Finally, I reached out to Alex to see if he’d like to merge my changes back up to his master.

So, yeah, my “quick” generation of a “simple” invoice, ended being a morning gleefully spent incrementally improving an invoice app I didn’t write. I loved it!

See the live version on my site and check out the Github repo. Free invoice generation and free software for the win! Pull requests welcome ;)

Feb 8, 2010 Update – I had a feature request to support a logo being displayed. This feature has been added!

The way it works is that you provide a URL of your logo and then click “show” and size the logo to your liking. Default is to not use or show a logo. Enjoy!

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Happy Hacker Halloween! https://blog.plip.com/2019/10/31/happy-hacker-halloween/ https://blog.plip.com/2019/10/31/happy-hacker-halloween/#comments Fri, 01 Nov 2019 05:31:23 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2256 […]]]> Last year I wanted to be a “Hacker” and code up a solution to show near by access points and nearby phones. I failed. However, I did a good job of brushing up on what I needed to do over the past year and so this year I was a hacker for reals. Here I am in the final get up:

hacker.jones.jpg

Let’s break it down! Here’s the hardware list (affiliate links to Amazon):

My final build out looked like this:

IMG_20191031_160240.jpg

A quick write up of the software is:

  1. install latest Rasbpian on your MicrSD card
  2. Install latest YANPIWS in /var/www/html/YANPIWS
  3. Install howmanypeoplearearound as the pi user. Ensure it’s path is /home/pi/.local/bin/howmanypeoplearearound
  4. Ensure you have all the libs for YANPIWS python scripts installed so you can talk to the BME280
  5. Hook up the BME280 to the right 4 pins on the Pi using the jumper cables
  6. Hook up the monitor to the Pi’s HDMI and the External WiFi adapter a USB port
  7. Have the Pi boot into kiosk mode with a browser that points to http://127.0.0.1 by following this awesome guide on pimylife.com. Note that you’ll only use the one URL and have no while loop in the kiosk bash script.
  8. Install Apache and PHP with sudo apt install apache2 php
  9. In /var/www/html/ put all of the files I just published on this gist. Basically it’s a small web app to show the data we’re collecting as well as some bash scripts that get run in cron.
  10. Install a bunch of cron jobs that gather the data as the pi user. This will use wlan0 (built in) to look for nearby access points using the venerable iw command. It will use wlan1 (USB adapter) to look for phones and such in monitor mode using howmanypeoplearearound. Finally, it will get the temp and humidity using the python script from YANPIWS. You may need to make /var/www/html writable by pi user to make this work.

It’s not my finest code, but if everything worked correctly, the Pi will boot up every time and show something like this:

IMG_20191031_190702.jpg

As you can see it got cold tonight on our walk – by the time we got home at 8pm it was 45. Happy Hacker Halloween!

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Punk Rock Band Name: Crispus Attucks and the Saucy Boys https://blog.plip.com/2019/09/11/punk-rock-band-name-crispus-attucks-and-the-saucy-boys/ https://blog.plip.com/2019/09/11/punk-rock-band-name-crispus-attucks-and-the-saucy-boys/#respond Wed, 11 Sep 2019 23:44:21 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2251 […]]]> I’ve been working my way through the non-fiction book, “Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong“. I just got to the mention of the early American named, “Crispus Attucks” who was murdered in the Boston Massacre. It was such a wonderful name, I took a break from reading the book’s non-fiction to read Wikipedia’s non-fiction. Turns out Crispus is an interesting fellow!

Reading further on in his article, I was surprised to see that the a certain John Adams (yes, that one) was said to, “successfully defended most of the accused British soldiers against a charge of murder”. His summary of the ones who incited the soldiers’ violent response? Adams called them nothing less than:

a motley rabble of saucy boys, negros and molattoes, Irish teagues and outlandish Jack Tarrs.

– John Adams

How could I pass up this punk rock band name!?! It shouted itself out to me. Enjoy!

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NAT and Macvlan on production LXD (plus reverse proxy & SSH Config) https://blog.plip.com/2019/08/17/nat-and-macvlan-on-production-lxd-plus-reverse-proxy-ssh-config/ https://blog.plip.com/2019/08/17/nat-and-macvlan-on-production-lxd-plus-reverse-proxy-ssh-config/#comments Sat, 17 Aug 2019 22:14:42 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2220 […]]]> Intro and LXD install

At work recently I was charged with rebuilding a bare metal host. Beyond needing to follow our security best practices and be well documented, it was left up to me how to do it. I had my own needs for test VMs and there was a pending request for a VM* for semi-production instance. This meant some VMs* would be fine in a traditional NATed environment, where they had no publicly accessible interfaces, and others would need full fledged public IPs. (* – I’m using “VM” liberally in this post. These are technically LXD containers which use the host kernel.)

Given my penchant for LXD, I’m guessing you can see where this is going ;) If you don’t know my penchant, check out these posts, specifically, “From zero to LXD: Installing a private compute cloud on a Cisco C220 M4SFF“.

I won’t go as into nitty-gritty detail on the hardware setup (this time with an older c220 M3 LFF instead of the new M4 SFF), but I set up the system very similarly, but was forced to use a RAID10 set up on 4 drives – no fancy ZFS set up this time. I’ll see some performance and features lost as LXD was configured to just use filesystem (/var/lib/lxd), but given I have bare metal in a colo with as many VMs as I want, I’m happy ;)

After installing Ubuntu 18.04, giving it a static IP and running our Ansible hardening roles against it, I was ready to configure LXD. The nice thing about LXD is that you can have as many container profiles as you want. This means I can zip through the default lxd init process to have VMs which are behind NAT and then trivially add a new profile that allows hosts to have a public IP after that.

The initial config of LXD looks like this:

Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]:
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, dir, lvm) [default=btrfs]:
Create a new BTRFS pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
Would you like to use an existing block device? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Size in GB of the new loop device (1GB minimum) [default=15GB]:
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]:
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]:
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]:
Would you like LXD to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes]
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]:

After that, and HUGE thanks to this concise post by Simos Xenitellis, we can now configure a new profile with Macvlan for VMs that need a public IP. Simos’ post really covers this nicely (I even use their same code snippets ;), but by copying the default profile (lxc profile copy default lanprofile) and then setting the the nictype (lxc profile device set lanprofile eth0 nictype macvlan) and the parent (lxc profile device set lanprofile eth0 parent enp5s12) on the new profile, we’re ready to go. Note that this assume your bare metal’s nic is enp5s12 and your LXD VMs use eth0 (the default).

Network types: NAT, Bridge & Macvlan

But wait, what is Macvlan? And, just so we’re all clear, how does it differ from the default NAT set up or the fancy bridged set up in my earlier post? Let’s break it down:

  • Network Address Translation (NAT) – You’re very likely using this right now to read this post ;) NAT is what enables us to easily share a connection to the Internet with out everyone having a public IP. Have you seen IPs that start with 10.x.x.x, 172.x.x.x or 192.x.x.x? While not exclusive to NAT, they’re the most common IP ranges used in conjunction with it (See RFC 1918 for TMI). NAT allows a gateway to hand out these IPs which then can send traffic out to the Internet and, by modifying the ports used, send the responses back to the NATed host who originally made the requested.

    NAT is what LXD uses when you accept all the defaults in lxd init. This is super handy for testing and development! As well, we can use it to our advantage with a reverse HTTP proxy in production – more on this below.

  • BridgeBridges are a layer 2 connection that makes it appear as all devices are on the same network. This is convenient when you want all devices to work with the same IP range, either with public IPs or in your NATed network. This is how I set up LXD in the prior article. Any time a VM is created in LXD, it can see all hosts, but it does take a slightly more complex network set up on the bare metal.

  • Macvlan – I’ll quote this great write up on hicu.be to describe Macvlan, “[it] allows you to configure multiple Layer 2 (i.e. Ethernet MAC) addresses on a single physical interface. Macvlan allows you to configure sub-interfaces (also termed slave devices) of a parent, physical Ethernet interface (also termed upper device), each with its own unique (randomly generated) MAC address, and consequently its own IP address.”. This achieves the same result as bridges with one major caveat: host and VMs can not talk to each other. That is, your VMs won’t be able to talk to you bare metal LXD host and vice versa – caveat emptor!

Now that you know what the three setups are, and how easy it was to set up NAT (just accept LXD defaults) and how easy it is to set up Macvlan (3 command line calls) – let’s see what we can do with them!

Again per Simos’ post, we can easily create a new NATed VM and then a Macvlan VM like so:

lxc launch ubuntu: natVM
lxc launch -p lanprofile ubuntu: lanVM

To set a static IP on either host, assuming your running Ubuntu 18.04 like me, you’d just edit /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml. So let’s say I wanted to give the natVM IP .10 in the 10.x.x.x range that LXD gave me and use Quad9 for DNS. I’d edit50-cloud-init.yaml to look like this:

network:
   version: 2
   renderer: networkd
   ethernets:
     eth0:
      dhcp4: no
      addresses: [10.0.0.10/24]
      gateway4: 10.0.0.1
      nameservers:
        addresses: [9.9.9.9]

This ends the part of the post where we talk about NAT and Macvlan both easily co-existing on LXD. Now on to what you might do with that set up! Specifically, how you might use Apache to forward on HTTP requests on a public IP to a NATed VM.

Apache reverse proxy

If you wanted to run lots of VMs, none of which needed a public IP, but a few needed to run a public service, you might wonder how to best do this? In my case, I had a small amount of public IPs, so burning one for every VM was a big waste. A better way is to just selectively forward some HTTP traffic from the bare-metal host’s public IP to a NATed VM’s IP. I’m an Apache kinda person, but this could be done with your web server of choice. It goes with out saying, but this trick will only work with HTTP traffic. I’ll speak to being able to SSH “directly” to any NATed hosts below!

Let’s get started by installing apache2 on the Ubuntu bare-metal host and enable some key modules:

apt install apache2
a2enmod ssl rewrite proxy proxy_http

Now edit /etc/apache2/ports.conf  so that it’s listening on any ports you need – in our example it’s 3000 (Grafana) and 8086 (InfluxDB) so we’ll add just two lines:

<IfModule ssl_module>
   Listen 443
   Listen 3000
   Listen 8086
</IfModule>

Assuming you want to run a service on 8086 (InfluxDB) and a service on 3000 (Grafana) on the VM we configured above on .10, you’d create a vhost file called /etc/apache2/sites-available/influxdb-int.conf and it would look like this:

<VirtualHost *:3000>
         ServerName grafana-int.example.com
         LogLevel warn
         SSLEngine on
         SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/ssl.crt/your.crt
         SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/ssl.key/your.key
         ProxyRequests Off
         <Proxy *>
             Require all granted
         </Proxy>
         ProxyPass / https://10.0.0.10:3000/
         ProxyPassReverse / https://10.0.0.10:3000/
 </VirtualHost>
 <VirtualHost *:8086>
         ServerName influxdb-int.example.com
         LogLevel warn
         SSLEngine on
         SSLCertificateFile /etc/httpd/ssl.crt/your.crt
         SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/httpd/ssl.key/your.key
         ProxyRequests Off
         <Proxy *>
             Require all granted
         </Proxy>
         ProxyPass / http://10.0.0.10:8086/
         ProxyPassReverse / http://10.0.0.10:8086/
 /VirtualHost>

Note that this assumes you’re running everything over TLS (you should!!). As well, it assumes that your cert (SSLCertificateFile) and key (SSLCertificateKeyFile) are in /etc/httpd/ssl.key . Change these according to your specifc set up.

From here, you would follow the set up your apps to ensure they’re working locally on .10 and they should work on the public ip of your bare metal. Of course these all need to be configured to use TLS over the default HTTP. Huh – sounds like a whole “How to harden your TIG deployment” might be in order! (Of course, store any passwords encrypted when automating your deployments.)

Secure SSH to NATed LXD hosts

A final note on this set up is how to securely SSH to LXD hosts. Of course you can just SSH to your bare metal host and then bash in (eg lxd exec natVM bash), but how do you run your Ansible roles against these NATed VMs or another automation tool? SSH config files to the rescue!

Let’s assume your public IP of your bare metal is 1.2.3.4 and you want to ssh to the 10.0.0.10 IP we just set up above. All you need to do is create a file in your .ssh folder called “config” with 3 lines like this:

Host natVM
   Hostname 10.0.0.10
   ProxyCommand ssh -W %h:%p 1.2.3.4

With this set up, you can run ssh natVM and your config will automatically see the configuration to securely proxy the command through the 1.2.3.4 host through to your internal only .10 host. This works especially well when you have SSH Keys set up with SSH Agents.

Drop me a note if you have any questions!

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Installing VirtualBox on MacOS via VNC – just use a real mouse https://blog.plip.com/2019/06/13/installing-virtualbox-on-macos-via-vnc-just-use-a-real-mouse/ https://blog.plip.com/2019/06/13/installing-virtualbox-on-macos-via-vnc-just-use-a-real-mouse/#respond Thu, 13 Jun 2019 22:51:43 +0000 https://blog.plip.com/?p=2179 […]]]> At work the other day I was testing our Ansible instructions on how to get a development environment set up. Given that this was supposed to be platform agnostic and that I exclusively develop on Ubuntu and LXD, I found an old Mac Mini on Craigslist to run VirtualBox on. As it came with only 2GB of RAM, I was happy to discover you can actually upgrade to 16GB per the Everymac site:

Officially, this model supports 8 GB of RAM, but … it actually is capable of supporting 16 GB of RAM using two 8 GB modules.

– EM

Add an old 500GB SSD I had kicking around, and now the machine is pretty responsive for being 7 years old and costing me $190 all in!

Given I didn’t want to dedicate a keyboard, monitor and mouse to this, the very first thing I did was to enable Remote Desktop, specifically VNC, and stuffed it with my other mini servers in the “server room”:

I then went about zipping through installing Ansible, VirtualBox and Vagrant .

When I went to boot my first VM, I got weird error on the command line (I didn’t save it, sorry). After some trouble shooting, I decided to just re-install, and more slowly this time, and the GUI showed me this:

Baffled, I tried again and again, failing the same way every time. Researching the problem, I found a post on Medium suggesting I hadn’t allowed the correct permissions in the Security & Privacy settings. None of these suggestions helped. Finally, I read the comments at the bottom of the page, including the one from Elias Politakis which said,

Please note that if you are using a VNC connection (or similar remote access software) you won’t be able to click the [Allow] button because OSX requires that Process ID pressing the Allow button is zero (0) which is the system PID. You would need to physically visit the Mac and click the Allow button with the physical mouse.

– EP

Oh, OK! But…now I had to extract the Mini from the server room :( Then I remembered I had a spare wireless mouse! What I did was plug the mouse in to the mini, then back to my desktop worsktation where I connected to the Mini over VNC and the mouse was able to still work all the way back to the closet. Then I could click the button with a real mouse, but without using a real monitor or real keyboard, or even moving the mini:

So – if you happen to be like Elias or me, just use a real mouse! Happy computing.

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